Research Article

College of Education Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitude in Terms of Usefulness, Confidence and Enjoyment towards Geometry by Gender

Anas Seidu Salifu 1 , Michael Johnson Nabie 2 , Jones Apawu 2 *
More Detail
1 Senior Tutor, Department of Mathematics & ICT, E.P. College of Education, Bimbilla, GHANA2 Department of Mathematics Education, University of Education, Winneba, GHANA* Corresponding Author
Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 2(2), 2021, ep21012,
OPEN ACCESS   1607 Views   1419 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


This study investigated gender differences in pre-service teachers’ attitude towards geometry in Northern Region of Ghana. The research design was descriptive cross-sectional survey. A concurrent mixed-methods approach was adopted using both closed and open-ended questionnaire items. The population for the study was one thousand, six hundred and sixty-nine (1669) level 200 Pre-service Teachers (PSTs). The sample composed of two hundred and forty (240), comprising 120 PSTs each of female and male. The sampling procedure was convenient, stratified and simple random. The instrument used was 32 item Utley Geometry Attitude Scales (UGAS) that was developed by Utley (2007) and 4 opened ended questions. Statistically significant difference was detected between the male and female in their responses to usefulness of learning geometry, confidence to learning geometry and enjoyment of learning geometry which all favored the male PSTs who showed positive attitude towards geometry.


Salifu, A. S., Nabie, M. J., & Apawu, J. (2021). College of Education Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitude in Terms of Usefulness, Confidence and Enjoyment towards Geometry by Gender. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 2(2), ep21012.


  1. Adelson, J. L., & McCoach, D. B. (2011). Development and psychometric properties of the math and me survey: Measuring third through sixth graders’ attitudes toward mathematics. Measurement and Evaluation in Counselling and Development, 44(4), 225-247.
  2. Armah, R. B., Cofie, P. O., & Okpoti, C. A. (2017). The geometric thinking levels of pre-service teachers in Ghana. Higher Education Research, 2(3), 98-106.
  3. Asante, K. O. (2010). Sex differences in mathematics performance among senior high Students in Ghana.
  4. Asante, K. O. (2012). Secondary students’ attitudes towards mathematics. IFE PsychologIA, 20(1), 121-133.
  5. Asare-Nkoom, S. (2007) Sex-differences in attitudes towards mathematics of junior secondary school pupils in the central Region of Ghana. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 5(1), 21-27.
  6. Asomah, R. K., Dennis, H., Alhassan, M. N., & Aseidu, K. J. (2018). Ghanaian public and private junior high school mathematics classroom learning environment: A look at students’ attitudes. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 14, 199-200.
  7. Atanasova-Pachemska, T., Lazarova, L., Arsov, J., Pacemska, S., & Trifunov, Z. (2015). Determination of the factors that form the students’ attitude towards mathematics. Mathematics Education Research (MER), 8(12), 1-8.
  8. Awofala, A. O. A (2016). Examining preservice mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward mathematics. Nigerian Journal of Curriculum Studies, 23, 292-300.
  9. Awofala, A. O., Arigbabu, A. A., & Awofala, A. A. (2013). Effects of framing and team assisted individualised instructional strategies on senior secondary school students’ attitudes toward mathematics. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 6(1), 1.
  10. Bae, Y., Choy, S., Geddes, C., Sabble, J., & Snyder, T. (2000). Trends in educational equity of girls and women. Education Statistics Quarterly, 2(2), 115-120.
  11. Ball, D. L. (1990). Pre-service elementary and secondary teachers’ understanding of division. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(2), 132-144.
  12. Cann, R. (2009). Girls’ participation in post-16 mathematics: A view from pupils in Wales. Gender and Education, 21(6), 651-669.
  13. Carroll, C., & Gill, O. (2012). Teaching mathematics and its applications. An International Journal of IMA, 31(4), 199-214.
  14. Cavallo, A. M. L., & Laubach. T. A. (2001). Students’ science perceptions and enrollment decisions in differing learning cycle classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(9), 1029-1062.
  15. Chua, Y. P. (2009). Advanced research statistics: Regression test, factor analysis and SEM analysis. McGraw-Hill Education.
  16. Dede, Y. (2012). Students’ attitudes towards geometry: a cross-sectional study. International Journal for Studies in Mathematics Education, 5(1), 85-113.
  17. Erdogan, T., Akkaya, R., & Akkaya, S. C. (2009). The effect of the Van Hiele model based instruction on the creative thinking levels of 6th grade primary school students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9(1), 181–194.
  18. Eshun, B. A. (2004). Sex-differences in attitude of students towards mathematics in secondary schools. Mathematics Connection, 4, 1-13.
  19. Frenzel, A. C., Fiedler, D., Marx, A. K. G., Reck, C., & Pekrun, R. (2020). Who enjoys teaching, and when? Between-and within-person evidence on teachers’ appraisal-emotion links. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.
  20. Goos, M., & Spencer, T. (2003). Properties of shape, mathematics-making waves. In M. Goos & T. Spencer (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th biennial conference of the Australian association of mathematics teachers (pp. 424-434). AAMT Inc.
  21. Gresham, G. (2017). Preservice to inservice: Does mathematics anxiety change with teaching experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 1-18.
  22. Guner, N. (2012). Using metaphor Analysis to explore High School students’ Attitudes towards learning mathematics. Education, 133(1), 39-48.
  23. Hannafin, R. D. (2004). Achievement differences in structured versus unstructured instructional geometry programs. Educational Technology Research and Development, 52(1),19-32.
  24. Hannafin, R. D., Truxaw, M. P., Vermillion, J. R., & Liu, Y. J. (2008). Effects of spatial ability and instructional program on geometry achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 101(3), 148-156.
  25. Hannula, S. M., Maijala, H., & Pehkonen, E. (2004). Developing understanding and self-confidence in mathematics; Grades 5-8. Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.
  26. Hart, L., & Walker, J. (1993). Research ideas for the classroom: Middle grades mathematics. Macmillan Publishing Company.
  27. Kadijevich, D. (2006). Developing trustworthy TIMSS background measures: A case study on mathematics attitude. The Teaching of Mathematics, 9(2), 41-51.
  28. Karjanto, N. (2017). Attitude toward mathematics among the students at Nazarbayev University Foundation Year Programme. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 48(6), 849-863.
  29. Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality. Computers & Graphics – UK, 27(3), 339-345.
  30. Kaur, K. (2016). Achievement in mathematics of ninth class government school students in relation to their attitude towards mathematics. International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research, 3(6), 2020-2027.
  31. Khun-Inkeeree, H., Omar-Fauzee, M. S., & Haji-Othman, M. K. (2016). Students’ attitude towards achievement in mathematics: a cross sectional study of year six students in songklha province, Thailand. European Journal of Education Studies, 2(4), 89-99.
  32. Knezek, G. A. & Christensen, R. (2018). Learner attributes and technology-enriched environments associated with positive climate change attitudes and energy and environmental science knowledge in middle school students. In T. Bastiaens, J. Van Braak, M. Brown, L. Cantoni, M. Castro, R. Christensen, G. Davidson-Shivers, K. DePryck, M. Ebner, M. Fominykh, C. Fulford, S. Hatzipanagos, G. Knezek, K. Kreijns, G. Marks, E. Sointu, E. Korsgaard Sorensen, J. Viteli, J. Voogt, P. Weber, E. Weippl & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 1736-1743). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved May 25, 2021 from
  33. Kupari, P., & Nissinen, K. (2013). Background factors behind mathematics achievement in Finnish education context: Explanatory models based on TIMSS 1999 and TIMSS 2011 data. IEA CONFERENCE 2013, Proceedings.
  34. Kyei, L., Apam, B., & Nokoe, K. S. (2011). Some gender differences in performance in senior high mathematics examinations in mixed high schools. American journal of social and management sciences, 2(4), 348-355.
  35. Li, Y., & Kulm, A.E. G. (2008). Knowledge and confidence of pre-service mathematics teachers: the case of fraction division. ZDM, 40, 833-843.
  36. Lund Research Ltd. (2018). Independent t-test using SPSS statistics.
  37. Marbán, J. M., Palacios, A., & Maroto, A. (2020). Enjoyment of teaching mathematics among pre-service teachers. Mathematics Education Research Journal.
  38. Markovits, Z., & Patkin, D. (2021). Preschool in-service teachers and geometry: Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 16(1), em0619.
  39. Mata, M., de Lourdes Monteiro V., & Peixoto, F. (2012). Attitudes towards mathematics: Effects of individual, motivational, and social support factors. Child Development Research, 34, 1149-041.
  40. Mato, M., & De la Torre, E. (2010). Assessment of attitudes towards mathematics and academic performance. In M. J. González, M. T. González, & J. Murillo (Eds.), Investigación en educación matemática [Research in mathematics education] (pp. 285-300, Vol. 13). SEIEM.
  41. Mensah, J. K., Okyere, M., & Kuranchie, A. (2013). Student Attitude towards Mathematics and Performance: Does the Teacher Attitude Matter? Journal of Education and Practice, 4(3), 132-139.
  42. Michelli, M. (2013). The relationship between attitudes and achievement in mathematics among fifth grade students (Honors Thesis). Paper 126.
  43. Mistretta, R. M. (2000). Enhancing geometric reasoning. Adolescence, 35(138), 365-379.
  44. Mohamed, L., & Waheed, H. (2011). Secondary students’ attitude towards mathematics in a selected school of Maldives. International journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(15 Special Issue)), 277-281.
  45. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics.
  46. Niyukuri, F., Nzotungicimpaye, J., & Ntahomvukiye, C. (2020). Pre-service teachers’ secondary school experiences in learning geometry and their confidence to teach it. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(8), em1871
  47. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). Mc Graw-Hill.
  48. Nyala, J. I. (2008). Sex- difference in attitude towards mathematics of Junior high school students in Ghana. Edo Journal of Counselling, 1(1), 137-161.
  49. OECD. (2013). Students’ drive and motivation. Results: Ready to learn-students’ engagement, drive and self-beliefs. Volume III. OECD.
  50. Özgün-Koca, S. A., & Şen, A. İ. (2006). The reasons of secondary education students’ mathematics and science lessons for negative attitudes. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 23, 137-147.
  51. Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315e341.
  52. Russo, J. A., & Russo, T. (2019). Teacher interest-led inquiry: unlocking teacher passion to enhance student learning experiences in primary mathematics. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(3), 701e717.
  53. Russo, J., Bobis, J., Downton, A., Feng, M., Hughes, S., Livy, S., McCormick, M., & Sullivan, P. (2021) Characteristics of high enjoyment teachers of mathematics in primary schools. Mathematics Education Research Journal.
  54. Russo, J., Bobis, J., Sullivan, P., Downton, A., Livy, S., McCormick, M., & Hughes, S. (2020). Exploring the relationship between teacher enjoyment of mathematics, their attitudes towards student struggle and instructional time amongst early years primary teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 88, 102983.
  55. Simegn, E. M., & Asfaw, Z. G. (2018). Assessing the influence of attitude towards mathematics on achievement of grade 10 and 12 female students in comparison with their male counterparts: Wolkite, Ethiopia. International Journal of secondary education, 5(5), 56.
  56. Stipek, D. (2002). Good instruction is motivating. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 309-332). Academic Press.
  57. Sunzuma, G., Masocha, M., & Zezekwa, N. (2013). Secondary school students’ attitudes towards their learning of geometry: a survey of bindura urban secondary schools. Greener Journal of educational Research, 3(8), 402-410.
  58. Syyeda, F. (2016). Understanding attitudes towards mathematics (ATM) using a multimodal modal model: An exploratory case study with secondary school children in England. Cambridge Open-Review Educational Research e-Journal, 3, 32-62.
  59. Tapia, M., & Marsh, G. E. (2004). An instrument to measure mathematics attitudes. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8(2), 16-22.
  60. Taşdemir, C. (2009). Primary school second level students’ attitudes towards mathematics course: The example of Bitlis province. Journal of Dicle University Ziya Gökalp Education Faculty, 12, 89-96.
  61. Tsao, Y. L. (2017). Pre-service elementary school teachers’ attitude towards geometry. US-China Education Review B, 7(1), 15-22.
  62. Tsao, Y. L. (2018). The Effect of Constructivist Instructional-Based Mathematics Course on the Attitude Toward Geometry of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers. US-China Education Review A, 8(1), 1-10.
  63. Usman, H., Yew, W. T., & Saleh, S. (2019). Effects of van Hiele’s phase-based teaching strategy and gender on pre-service mathematics teachers’ attitude towards geometry in Niger State, Nigeria. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 15, 61-75.
  64. Utley, J. (2007). Construction and validity of geometry attitude scales. School Science and Mathematics, 107(3), 89-93.
  65. Van de Walle, J. A. (2001). Geometric thinking and geometric concepts. In Elementary and middle school mathematics: teaching developmentally (4th Ed.). Allyn and Bacon.
  66. Van der Bergh, E. (2013). The influence of academic self–confidence on mathematics achievement (Doctoral dissertation), North-West University.
  67. Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The development of competence beliefs, expectancies for success, and achievement values from childhood through adolescence. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 92-122). Academic Press.
  68. Wilmot, E. M., & Otchey, J. E. (2012). The contribution of attitudes of students and teachers to junior high school students’ achievement in mathematics. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 10, 55-63.
  69. Winter, E., & O’Raw, P. (2010). Literature review of the principles and practice relating to inclusive education for children with special needs. The National Council for Special Education funded this report.
  70. Young-Loveridge, J., Taylor, M., Sharma, S., & Hawera, N. (2006). Students’ perspectives on the nature of mathematics. In F. Ell et al. (Eds.), Findings from the New Zealand Numeracy Development Projects 2005 (pp. 55-64). Ministry of Education.
  71. Zan, R., & Di Martino, P. (2007). Attitude toward mathematics: Overcoming the positive/negative dichotomy. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, Monograph, 3, 157-168.