Research Article

Stereotype threat and gender differences in statistics

Gita Taasoobshirazi 1 * , Ordene Edwards 2 , Bowen Eldridge 1
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1 School of Data Science and Analytics, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA2 Department of Psychological Sciences, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA* Corresponding Author
Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), 2023, ep23014,
Published: 12 March 2023
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Stereotype threat (ST) has been extensively explored as an explanation for gender disparities in achievement and participation in mathematics. However, there is a lack of research evaluating ST in statistics. The present study evaluated the impact of ST on gender differences in student performance, self-efficacy, and anxiety in statistics using a four-group, quasi-experimental design. Specifically, 102 elementary statistics students at a university in the Southeast United States were randomly assigned to one of four ST conditions including an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, a reverse ST condition, and a nullified ST condition. Results indicated that there were no gender differences by ST condition in statistics self-efficacy, test anxiety, and performance. Analyses of student responses to open-ended questions indicated that females were more likely than males to report that they had fewer opportunities to achieve in statistics. Implications of our findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Taasoobshirazi, G., Edwards, O., & Eldridge, B. (2023). Stereotype threat and gender differences in statistics. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), ep23014.


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