Research Article

Fostering science process skills through constructivist-based module among form two students of different cognitive levels

Ibrahim Alhassan Libata 1 * , Mohd Norawi Ali 2, Hairul Nizam Ismail 2
More Detail
1 Department of Science Education, faculty of Education, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, NIGERIA2 School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA* Corresponding Author
Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), 2023, ep23005,
Published Online: 29 December 2022, Published: 01 January 2023
OPEN ACCESS   155 Views   109 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


The present study was undertaken to investigate the 7E-inquiry integrated module (7E-IIM) effect in fostering form two junior secondary school students’ science process skills (SPS). This study employed pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test quasi-experimental design. 73 students aged 12 years on average constitute the sample of this study. The science process skills test was used to measure the participants’ process skills; meanwhile, the Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning was administered to classify the participants into the concrete and formal cognitive developmental levels. Repeated measure ANOVA and independent Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. The repeated measure ANOVA findings indicated a significant mean difference between experimental and control groups (p<0.05). However, no significant difference existed in student’s SPS between concrete and formal cognitive levels in the experimental group (p>0.05). On the contrary, there is a significant difference in student’s SPS between concrete and formal cognitive levels in the control group (p<0.05). Overall, the 7E-IIM effectively promotes students’ SPS regardless of their cognitive developmental level. Instructors are therefore recommended to adopt the 7E-IIM in fostering students’ process skills to close the gap in students’ learning differences and difficulties.


Libata, I. A., Ali, M. N., & Ismail, H. N. (2023). Fostering science process skills through constructivist-based module among form two students of different cognitive levels. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), ep23005.


  1. AAAS. (1994). Benchmarks for science literacy. Oxford University Press.
  2. Abd Rauf, R. A., Rasul, M. S., Mans, A. N., Othman, Z., & Lynd, N. (2013). Inculcation of science process skills in a science classroom. Asian Social Science, 9(8), 1911-2017.
  3. Akani, O. (2015). Levels of possession of science process skills by final year students of colleges of education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(27), 94-101.
  4. Aktamis, H., & Ergin, O. (2008). The effect of scientific process skills education on students’ scientific creativity, science attitudes and academic achievements [Paper presentation]. The Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching.
  5. Aktamis, H., Higde, E., & Ozden, B. (2016). Effects of the inquiry-based learning method on students’ achievement, science process skills and attitudes towards science: A meta-analysis science. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 13(4), 248-261.
  6. Ali, R., Ghazi, S. R., Khan, M. S., Hussain, S., & Faitma, Z. T. (2010). Effectiveness of modular teaching in biology at secondary level. Asian Social Science, 6(9), 49.
  7. Amansoi, E. O. I., & Basseyii, B. A. (2017). Assessment of selected science process skills acquisition among senior secondary schools students in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 10(1), 119-126.
  8. Ango, M. L. (2002). Mastery of science process skills and their effective use in the teaching of science: An educology of science education in the Nigerian context. International Journal of Educology, 16(1), 11-30.
  9. Animashaun, V. (2015). Effects of cognitive apprenticeship and critical exploration teaching strategies on basic science students’ learning outcomes in selected secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria.
  10. Aydin-Gunbatar, S., Oztay, E. S., Tarkin-Celikkiran, A., & Ekiz-Kiran, B. (2019). Experienced chemistry teachers’ science process skills (SPSs) development and their use of SPSs in activity plans. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 2, 149-161.
  11. Ayodele, M. O. (2016). Attitude, self-concept, and achievement of junior secondary school students in basic science in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 6(1), 167.
  12. Bete, A. O. (2020). Students’ knowledge and process skills in learning grade-8 chemistry. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 10(1), 1-13.
  13. Bruner, J. (1985). Models of the learner. Educational Researcher, 14(6), 5-8.
  14. Cantu, L. L., & Herron, J. D. (1978). Concrete and formal Piagetian stages and science concept attainment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 15(2), 135-143.
  15. Chongo, S., Osman, K., & Nayan, N. A. (2021). Impact of the plugged-in and unplugged chemistry computational thinking modules on achievement in chemistry. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 17(4), em1953.
  16. Colburn, A. (2000). An inquiry primer. Science Scope, 23(6), 42-44.
  17. Demirbas, M., & Tanriverdi, G. (2012). The level of science process skills of science students in Turkey [Paper presentation]. The International Conference New Perspectives in Science Education.
  18. Duda, H. J., Susilo, H., & Newcombe, P. (2019). Enhancing different ethnicity science process skills: Problem-based learning through practicum and authentic assessment. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 1207-1222.
  19. Ergul, R., Sımsekli, Y., Calis, S., Ozdilek, Z., Gocmencelebi, S., & Sanli, M. (2011). The effects of inquiry-based science teaching on elementary school students’ science process skills and science attitudes. Bulgarian Journal of Science & Education Policy, 5(1), 48-68.
  20. Feyzioglu, B. (2009). An investigation of the relationship between science process skills with efficient laboratory use and science achievement in chemistry education. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 6(3), 114-132.
  21. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS: (and sex and drugs and rock’n’roll). SAGE.
  22. Finley, F. N. (1983). Science processes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(1), 47-54.
  23. Gagné, R. M. (1965). The psychological bases of science--A process approach.
  24. Gagné, R. M. (1967). The conditions of learning. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  25. George, G. (2016). The effect of constructivist 7-E model in teaching geography at secondary school level. International Journal of Applied Research, 2, 239-242.
  26. Gok, G. (2014). The effect of 7E learning cycle instruction on 6th grade students’ conceptual understanding of human body systems, self-regulation, scientific epistemological beliefs, and science process skills [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
  27. Guido, R. M. D. (2014). Evaluation of a modular teaching approach in materials science and engineering. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(11), 1126-1130.
  28. Hartman, S. A. (2017). Development of “teachers integrating physical activity into the curriculum” (TIPAC) using a systems model approach [PhD dissertation, University of Akron].
  29. Ibe, E., & Nwosu, A. A. (2017). Effects of ethnoscience and traditional laboratory practical on science process skills acquisition of secondary school biology students in Nigeria. British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies, 1(1), 35-46.
  30. Idowu, D. (2011). Developing Nigerian integrated science curriculum. International Journal of Science and Technology Education Research, 2(8), 134-145.
  31. Jack, G. U. (2013). The influence of identified student and school variables on students’ science process skills acquisition. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(5), 16-22.
  32. Jegede, O. J., & Okebukola, P. A. (1991). The relationship between African traditional cosmology and students’ acquisition of a science process skill. International Journal of Science Education, 13(1), 37-47.
  33. Kimba, A., Giwa, A., Libata, I., & Wakkala, G. (2018). The relationship between science process skills and student attitude toward physics in senior secondary school in Aliero Metropolis. African Educational Research Journal, 6(3), 107-113.
  34. Koksal, E. A., & Berberoglu, G. (2014). The effect of guided-inquiry instruction on 6th grade Turkish students’ achievement, science process skills, and attitudes toward science. International Journal of Science Education, 36(1), 66-78.
  35. Liu, C. C., & Chen, I. J. (2010). Evolution of constructivism. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3(4), 63-66.
  36. Longo, C. M. (2012). Effects of an inquiry-based science program on critical thinking, science process skills, creativity, and science fair achievement of middle school students [Doctoral dissertation, Western Connecticut State University].
  37. Mari, J., & Gumel, S. A. (2015). Effects of jigsaw model of cooperative learning on self-efficacy and achievement in chemistry among concrete and formal reasoners in colleges of education in Nigeria. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 5(3), 196.
  38. Matanluk, O., Mohammad, B., Kiflee, D. N. A., & Imbug, M. (2013). The effectiveness of using teaching module based on radical constructivism toward students learning process. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 607-615.
  39. Njoku, Z. (2002). Enhancing girls acquisition of science process skills in co-educational schools: An experience with sex grouping for practical chemistry. Journal of the Science Teacher Association of Nigeria, 37, 69-75.
  40. Nor, N. M. (2014). Development of a classroom instruction based on constructivist 5E-learning cycle approach to enhance students’ conceptual understanding in data communications and networking [Dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia].
  41. Nwagbo, C., & Chukelu, U. C. (2011). Effects of biology practical activities on students’ process skill acquisition. Journal of the Science Association of Nigeria, 46(1), 58-70.
  42. Oloyede, O. I., & Adeoye, F. A. (2012). The relationship between acquisition of science process skills, formal reasoning ability and chemistry achievement. International Journal of African & African-American Studies, 8(1), 1-4.
  43. Osuolale, O. J. (2014). Problems of teaching and learning science in junior secondary schools in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(34), 109-118.
  44. Ozgelen, S. (2012). Students’ science process skills within a cognitive domain framework. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 8(4), 283-292.
  45. Ozturk, N., Tezel, O., & Acat, M. B. (2010). Science process skills levels of primary school seventh grade students in science and technology lesson. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 7(3), 15-28.
  46. Perinpasingam, P. T. S., & Balapumi, R. (2017). Designing and evaluating a web-based lesson for English language instruction. The English Teacher, 22.
  47. Piaget, J. (1976). Piaget’s theory Piaget and his school. Springer.
  48. Powell, K. C., & Kalina, C. J. (2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: Developing tools for an effective classroom. Education, 130(2).
  49. Pritchard, A. (2017). Ways of learning: Learning theories for the classroom. Routledge.
  50. Renken, M., Otrel-Cass, K., Chiocarriello, A., Girault, I., & Peffer, M. (2016). Scaffolding science learning: Promoting disciplinary knowledge, science process skills, and epistemic processes. In M. Renken, M. Peffer, K. Otrel-Cass, I. Girault, & A. Chiocarriello (Eds.), Simulations as scaffolds in science education (pp. 23-28). Springer.
  51. Samuel, I. (2017). Assessment of basic science teachers’ pedagogical practice and students’ achievement in Keffi Educational Zone, Nasarawa State, Nigeria [Unpublished master’s dissertation]. Nasarawa State University.
  52. Samuel, K., Libta, I. A., & Sabitu, A. (2018). Efficacy of process-based instruction in enhancing secondary school students’ academic performance and science skills acquisition in identification of cations in Faskari, Katsina State-Nigeria. Issues and Ideas in Education, 6(1), 87-97.
  53. Saputro, A. D., Atun, S., & Wilujeng, I. (2019). The impact of problem solving instruction on academic achievement and science process skills among prospective elementary teachers. İlköğretim Online [Primary Education Online], 18(2), 496-507.
  54. Scoular, C., Eleftheriadou, S., Ramalingam, D., & Cloney, D. (2020). Comparative analysis of student performance in collaborative problem solving: What does it tell us? Australian Journal of Education, 64(3), 282-303.
  55. Tan, M., & Temiz, B. K. (2003). The importance and role of the science process skills in science teaching. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 1(13), 13.
  56. Telaumbanua, Y. N., Sinaga, B., Mukhtar, & Surya, E. (2017). Development of mathematics module based onmetacognitive strategy in improving students’ mathematical problem solving ability at high school. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(19), 73-80.
  57. Turiman, P., Osman, K., & Wook, T. S. M. T. (2020). Inventive thinking 21st century skills among preparatory course science students. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 35(2), 145-170.
  58. Turkmen, H., & Usta, E. (2007). The role of learning cycle approach overcoming misconceptions in science. Kastamonu Education Journal, 15(2), 491-500.
  59. Ukoh, E. E. (2012). Determining the effect of problem-based learning instructional strategy on NCE pre-service teachers’achievement in physics and acquisition of science process skills. European Scientific Journal, 8(17), 102-113.
  60. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Harvard University Press.
  61. Wadsworth, B. J. (1979). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Lomgman Inc.
  62. Wijayanti, Y., Hartono, H., & Rachman, I. (2014). Effect of learning cycle 7E towards science process skills of eleventh science graders in state senior high school 4 in Palembang. In Proceedings of the 1st Sriwijaya University Learning and Education International Conference (655-661).
  63. Wilke, R. R., & Straits, W. J. (2005). Practical advice for teaching inquiry-based science process skills in the biological sciences. The American Biology Teacher, 67(9), 534-540.
  64. Woolfolk Hoy, A., Davis, H. A., & Anderman, E. M. (2013). Theories of learning and teaching in TIP. Theory into Practice, 52(sup1), 9-21.
  65. Yin, Q., Yang, W., & Li, H. (2020). Blending constructivism and instructivism: A study of classroom dialogue in Singapore kindergartens. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 34(4), 583-600.