Research Article

Learning through virtual manipulatives: Investigating the impact of Gizmos-based lessons on students’ performance in integers

Nur Fatin Haji Ismail 1 , Masitah Shahrill 1 * , Daniel Asamoah 1
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1 Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, BRUNEI DARUSSALAM* Corresponding Author
Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), 2023, ep23009,
Published: 20 January 2023
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Understanding integers is critical for further learning in mathematics. However, most students have difficulty understanding integers, especially how to apply sign rules. This study adopted a mixed-method and action research approach to investigate the impact of a virtual manipulative tool (Gizmos) on students’ performance in addition and subtraction of integers. It also explored students’ perceptions of the Gizmos-based intervention. A multistage sampling was used to select 44 year 9 students in one of the secondary schools in Brunei, who were subjected to a Gizmos-based lesson intervention on addition and subtraction of integers. Data were collected through pre-test, post-test, and interviews. Our paired sample t-test showed that student performance after the intervention improved significantly. The results also revealed that the Gizmos-based intervention provided an opportunity for students to play, learn, and visualize integers, enhancing their confidence, understanding, and performance. However, they found it challenging to memorize the rules during Gizmos-based lessons. Based on our results, Gizmos can be an effective tool that can help improve student performance in addition and subtraction of integers when carefully implemented. It has dynamic representative features that provide quick feedback to students when dealing with integers. It is recommended that teachers should continuously guide students to understand and apply sign rules and instructions in using Gizmos.


Haji Ismail, N. F., Shahrill, M., & Asamoah, D. (2023). Learning through virtual manipulatives: Investigating the impact of Gizmos-based lessons on students’ performance in integers. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), ep23009.


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