Research Article

Designing a flipped classroom instruction to improve plane geometry learning among pre-service teachers in Ghana

Seth Amoako Atta 1 * , Ebenezer Bonyah 1
More Detail
1 Department of Mathematics Education, Akenten Appiah Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development, Kumasi, GHANA* Corresponding Author
Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), 2023, ep23004,
Published Online: 28 November 2022, Published: 01 January 2023
OPEN ACCESS   853 Views   653 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


Teaching mathematics as a STEM subject in this 21st century must be challenging enough to inspire learning, especially in the basic schools. This also depends on the pedagogical content knowledge and skills of the teachers handling the subject. Therefore, there is a need to design modern instructional strategies for training future teachers handling the pupils at the primary schools. Flipped classroom approach is one of the emerging pedagogical strategies that has proven to be very efficacious in teaching almost all subjects. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the impact of flipped classrooms as a pedagogy in equipping the pre-service teachers with the knowledge and concepts of plane geometry, which happens to be one of the main branches of mathematics. A sample of 101 basic school pre-service teachers was purposively sampled for the study. A pre- and post-test design were used to gather quantitative data for analysis using a quasi-experimental approach. Based on the analysis of the results, the null hypothesis was rejected since there was a statistically significant difference in the pre-service teachers’ performance before and after the intervention. The study concluded that there was an improvement in performance due to the intervention. Therefore, the researcher recommends the flipped classroom approach as a formidable pedagogy for teaching pre-service teachers.


Atta, S. A., & Bonyah, E. (2023). Designing a flipped classroom instruction to improve plane geometry learning among pre-service teachers in Ghana. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 4(1), ep23004.


  1. Abah, J., Anyagh, P., & Age, T. (2017). A flipped applied mathematics classroom: Nigerian university students’ experience and perceptions. Abacus, 42(1), 78-87.
  2. Abdul Gafoor, K., & Kurukkan, A. (2015). Why high school students feel mathematics difficult. An exploration of affective beliefs [Paper presentation]. National Seminar on Pedagogy of Teacher Education-Trends and Challenges, Farook Training College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
  3. Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: Definition, rationale, and a call for research. Higher Education Research & Development, 34(1), 1-14.
  4. Abreh, M. K., Owusu, K. A., & Amedahe, F. K. (2018). Trends in performance of WASSCE candidates in the science and mathematics in Ghana: Perceived contributing factors and the way forward. Journal of Education, 198(1), 113-123.
  5. Abuhmaid, A., & Mohammad, A. (2020). The impact of flipped learning on procrastination and students’ attitudes toward it. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 566-573.
  6. Abu-Shanab, E. A. (2020). Students’ perceptions of flipped classrooms, gender, and country difference. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 15(4), 36-56.
  7. Adu, E., Mereku, D. K., Assuah, C. K., & Okpoti, C. A. (2017). Effect of multimedia courseware with cooperative learning on senior high school students’ proficiency in solving linear equation word problems. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 13, 1-11.
  8. Agrawal, J., & Morin, L. L. (2016). Evidence-based practices: Applications of concrete representational abstract framework across math concepts for students with mathematics disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 31(1), 34-44.
  9. Agyei, D. D., & Voogt, J. (2011). ICT use in the teaching of mathematics: Implications for professional development of pre-service teachers in Ghana. Education and Information Technologies, 16(4), 423-439.
  10. Agyei, E. D., & Agyei, D. D. (2021). Promoting interactive teaching with ICT: Features of intervention for the realities in the Ghanaian physics senior high school classroom. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(19), 93-117.
  11. Ajmal, S. F., & Hafeez, M. (2021). Critical review on flipped classroom model versus traditional lecture method. International Journal of Education and Practice, 9(1), 128-140.
  12. Aksu, H. H., & Colak, S. O. (2021). The effect of realistic mathematics education on student achievement in 8th grades geometric objects teaching. African Educational Research Journal, 9(1), 20-31.
  13. Akuffo, B., Okae-Adjei, S., & Dzisi, S. (2019). Flipped learning as an alternative for effective and efficient learning pathway in technical and vocational education and training (TVET): Evidence from Koforidua Technical University-Ghana. Commonwealth of Learning.
  14. Altaftazani, D. H., Rahayu, G. D. S., Kelana, J. B., Firdaus, A. R., & Wardani, D. S. (2020). Application of the constructivism approach to improve students’ understanding of multiplication material. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1657(1), 012007.
  15. Ameyaw, J., Turnhout, E., Arts, B., & Wals, A. (2019). Creating a responsive curriculum for postgraduates: Lessons from a case in Ghana. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 43(4), 573-588.
  16. Apuke, O. D. (2017). Quantitative research methods: A synopsis approach. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 6(11), 40-47.
  17. Arbain, N., & Shukor, N. A. (2015). The effects of GeoGebra on students achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 208-214.
  18. Arfiana, A., & Wijaya, A. (2018). Problem solving skill of students of senior high schools and Islamic high schools in Tegal Regency in solving the problem of PISA based on Polya’s stage. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika [Journal of Mathematics Education Research], 5(2), 211-222.
  19. Armah, S. E., Akayuure, P., & Armah, R. B. (2020). A comparative study of male and female distance learners’ mathematics achievement. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 2(1), ep21001.
  20. Arthur, Y. D., Asiedu-Addo, S., & Assuah, C. (2017). Students’ perception and its impact on Ghanaian students’ interest in mathematics: Multivariate statistical analytical approach. Asian Research Journal of Mathematics, 4(2), 1-12.
  21. Asunka, S., Freeman, E., & Sheeta Arthur, L. (2018). Implementing constructivist pedagogy in a flipped mode in a postgraduate course. ICERI2018 Proceedings, 1, 3301-3309.
  22. Atta, S. A., & Asiedu-Addo, S. (2021). The use of problem-solving approach linking classroom mathematics to real life activities at Bekwai SDA SHS. Global Scientific Jpurnals, 9(3), 1174-1195.
  23. Atta, S. A., & Brantuo, W. A. (2021). Digitalizing the teaching and learning of mathematics at the senior high schools in Ghana: The case of flipped classroom approach. American Journal of Education and Practice, 5(3), 29-37.
  24. Baah-Duodu, S., Osei-Buabeng, V., Cornelius, E. F., Hegan, J. E., & Nabie, M. J. (2020). Review of literature on teaching and learning geometry and measurement: A case of Ghanaian standards based mathematics curriculum. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, 6(3), 103-124.
  25. Bada, S. O., & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism learning theory: A paradigm for teaching and learning. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 5(6), 66-70.
  26. Baffoe, E., & Mereku, D. K. (2010). The van Hiele levels of understanding of students entering senior high school in Ghana. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 8, 51-62.
  27. Banson, J., & Arthur-Nyarko, E. (2021). Interactive courseware and academic performance in geometry in junior high schools. British Journal of Education, 9(9), 31-54.
  28. Bautista, J., Samonte, I., Improgo, C. M., & Gutierrez, M. R. (2020). Mother tongue versus English as a second language in mathematical word problems: Implications to language policy development in the Philippines. International Journal of Language and Literary Studies, 2(2), 18-29.
  29. Belbase, S. (2019). STEAM education initiatives in Nepal. The STEAM Journal, 4, 7.
  30. Benning, I. (2021). Enacting core practices of effective mathematics pedagogy with GeoGebra. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 23(2), 102-127.
  31. Bishop, J., & Verleger, M. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. In Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition (pp. 1-18).
  32. Bloomfield, J., & Fisher, M. J. (2019). Quantitative research design. Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses Association, 22(2), 27-30.
  33. Charles, R. I., & Carmel, C. A. (2005). Big ideas and understandings as the foundation for elementary and middle school mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Education, 7(3), 9-24.
  34. Diego-Mantecón, J.-M., Ortiz-Laso, Z., & Blanco, T. F. (2022). Implementing STEM projects through the EDP to learn mathematics: The importance of teachers’ specialization. In P. R. Richard, M. P. Vélez, & S. Van Vaerenbergh (Eds.), Mathematics education in the age of artificial intelligence (pp. 399-415). Springer.
  35. Duit, R. (2016). The constructivist view in science education–what it has to offer and what should not be expected from it. Investigaçôes Em Ensino de Ciências [Investigations in Science Teaching], 1(1), 40-75.
  36. Erbil, D. G. (2020). A review of flipped classroom and cooperative learning method within the context of Vygotsky theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1157.
  37. Gómez, P. J. S. (2016). Students’ ideas and radical constructivism. Science & Education, 25(5), 629-650.
  38. Gravemeijer, K. (2020). A socio-constructivist elaboration of realistic mathematics education. In M. Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen (Ed.), National reflections on the Netherlands didactics of mathematics (pp. 217-233). Springer.
  39. Hoffer, A. (1981). Geometry is more than proof. The Mathematics Teacher, 74(1), 11-18.
  40. Kenney, R., & Kastberg, S. (2013). Links in learning and transferable skills. Australian Senior Mathematics Journal, 27(1), 12-20.
  41. Kholid, M. N., Imawati, A., Swastika, A., Maharani, S., & Pradana, L. N. (2021). How are students’ conceptual understanding for solving mathematical problem? Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1776(1), 012018.
  42. Knapp, N. F. (2019). The shape activity: Social constructivism in the psychology classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 46(1), 87-91.
  43. Kumar, R. (2018). Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. SAGE.
  44. Leinwand, S., Huinker, D., & Brahier, D. (2014). Principles to actions: Mathematics programs as the core for student learning. Mathematics Teacher, 19(9), 516-519.
  45. Mensah, C. P., Yeboah, A., & Adom, D. (2017). Flipped classroom model as an instructional tool for effective teaching and learning of leatherwork. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 30(1), 195-212.
  46. Mereku, D. K. (2010). Five decades of school mathematics in Ghana. Mathematics Connection, 9(8), 73-86.
  47. Minarni, A., & Napitupulu, E. E. (2020). The role of constructivism-based learning in improving mathematical high order thinking skills of Indonesian students. Infinity Journal, 9(1), 111-132.
  48. MOE, NaCCA. (2019). Ministry of Education Ghana new curriculum. National Council for Curriculum Assessment.
  49. Muñante-Toledo, M. F., Salazar, G. D. C., Rojas-Plasencia, K. M., & Flores, J. M. V. E. (2021). Geogebra software in mathematical skills of high school students: Systematic teview. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 12(6), 4164-4172.
  50. NaCCA, MOE. (2019). Ministry of Education English syllabus for primary 4-6. National Council for Curriculum Assessment.
  51. Oladosu, L. O. (2014). Secondary school students’ meaning and learning of circle geometry [Unpublished doctoral thesis] [University of Calgary].
  52. Pusey, E. L. (2003). The van Hiele model of reasoning in geometry: A literature review [Master’s thesis, North Carolina State University].
  53. Shimamoto, D. (2012). Implementing a flipped classroom: An instructional module [Powerpoint presentation]. The Technology, Colleges, and Community Worldwide Online Conference.
  54. Student, A. (2017). Does the use of manipulatives to move pupils from a concrete to an abstract idea help or hinder their problem solving skills? [PhD thesis, University of Chichester].
  55. Uwurukundo, M. S., Maniraho, J. F., & Tusiime Rwibasira, M. (2022). Effect of GeoGebra software on secondary school students’ achievement in 3-D geometry. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 5749-5765.
  56. Van de Walle, J., Karp, K. S., Bay-Williams, J. M. (2015). Elementary and middle school mathematics: teaching developmentally. Pearson.